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Donald Trump attacks ‘media hostility’ after mail bombs

The US president was speaking after a series of suspect packages were sent to high-profile figures.

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गुदामैथुन क्या है ? कैसे करते हैं गुदा में सेक्स ?

गुदामैथुन क्या है ? कैसे करते हैं गुदा में सेक्स ? नमस्ते दोस्तों, आज हम आपको गुदामैथुन क्या है? कैसे करते हैं गुदा में सेक्स के बारे में जानकारी देने वाले हैं |  बहुत सारे लोगों को सवाल होता है कि गुदामैथुन कैसे किया जाता है, इस सवाल को लेकर अब हम आपको कुछ असरदार […]

The post गुदामैथुन क्या है ? कैसे करते हैं गुदा में सेक्स ? appeared first on कैसे करे.

Byfeibisi

世间万物,唯面包与真理不可辜负

本文经授权转载自微信公众号“科学艺术研究中心”,转载请联系原账号。

如果你同时是一位美食和物理爱好者,那很可能对纳森•梅尔沃德(Nathan Myhrvold)还留有深刻印象,这位毕业于加州大学数学系并在普林斯顿取得理论和数学物理专业博士学位,然后在剑桥跟着霍金做了一年博士后,研究宇宙天体学、弯曲时空中的量子场论和量子引力的传奇人物,在他给比尔·盖茨的微软做了四年首席技术官之后离职,自己开了家研究烹饪的公司,摇身一变成为一个现代主义美食家。

zhuang-science-bread-1

他在 2011 年推出一套五本,总共 2438 页的《现代主义烹饪》可说震惊世人,这本书的素材是从位于西雅图的烹饪实验室中产出的,在那里,厨师们动用了用于真空低温烹饪的浸入式循环器和水浴缸、用于清洗和处理食材的超声波浴缸、能独立控制温度和湿度的多功能烤炉、用于分离和提取的离心分离机、处理粉末和块丁的冷冻干燥器、达到消毒医疗器械水准的高压灭菌锅……来烹制各种食材,用高速摄像机等设备拍下了 15 万张原始照片,从中选出了 3216 张,结合物理知识和数据来讲解美食,并标上了 625 美元的高定价,其英文原版书重达 23.7 公斤。

《现代主义烹饪》中那张著名的正在烹饪西兰花的煎锅剖面图。

《现代主义烹饪》中那张著名的正在烹饪西兰花的煎锅剖面图。

《现代主义烹饪》

《现代主义烹饪》

出版商原以为这本书是买不掉的,但很快他们发现自己错了,《现代主义烹饪》不仅被媒体热捧,《华尔街日报》称其为“结束所有烹饪书的烹饪书”,而且还卖出了 22 万多册,销售额上亿。

就在所有人都还没为这个出版奇迹回过神来的时候,纳森•梅尔沃德带着他的团队又来了!这次,是一套五册的《现代主义面包》,超过 2600 页的一迭大部头,50 万张原始照片中选出来了 3000 张,并采用了不锈钢材质的外包装盒,讲述面包的历史、成分、技术、配方和搭配。看到这个架势,你真心要赞叹一声,梅尔沃德这位老爷子干啥都这么大手笔。

《现代主义面包》

《现代主义面包》

“烹饪是唯一一种大多数人经常做的科学实验,”他在解释自己如此郑重对待这件事的原因时说到,“它有变量,有些你能控制,有些你不能。你可以学习如何从失败和成功中做得更好。化学描述了很多细节,但物理学是关键。“

这句话还不只是针对有着面包食用传统的西方人而言,中国的包子馒头这种,也被《现代主义面包》囊括在内,所以他们讨论的,是广义上的面包。

目录页

目录页

这套书里面的物理学知识和其他科学知识,密度之高比之上一本有过之而无不及,厨师们以这部洋洋巨著,讲述着渗透、热传导、真空混合、微波乳化、发酵、焦糖化……等等过程,如何在面团和其他辅料上发挥着重要的作用。

Nathan Myhrvold 和他的现代主义烹饪实验室团队。

Nathan Myhrvold 和他的现代主义烹饪实验室团队。

不仅如此,为了追溯源头,了解古代面包和现代面包有何相似与不同,纳森•梅尔沃德本人专门跑到了卢浮宫博物馆中去研究了一下历史上的名画。在接受《物理世界》杂志采访时,他提到自己曾注意到一幅 15 世纪的画作中,耶稣和门徒们正在吃椒盐脆饼。

面包从来就是一项科学与艺术的结合体。有着宇宙学研究经验的梅尔沃德甚至欣喜地发现,在面包制作中,表面张力随着气泡尺寸非线性地增加,意味着在给定体积下膨胀微小气泡所需能量远远大于以相同尺寸膨胀大气泡所需能量,这是物理学家们在时空泡沫的研究中曾发现过的现象。

书里面还破除了很多面包制作中的“迷信”,比如是不是一定要揉面团才能发酵得更好,或者只有某些地区的水才能制作出最好的某种面包,答案统统为否。科学从来都在厨房里,梅尔沃德强调,我只是把无知从那里赶走了。

位于西雅图贝尔维尤的现代主义烹饪实验室,包括全套加工、分析和计算设施,还包括配备有扫描电子显微镜的最先进摄影器材。

位于西雅图贝尔维尤的现代主义烹饪实验室,包括全套加工、分析和计算设施,还包括配备有扫描电子显微镜的最先进摄影器材。

分别用普通自来水(几乎所有面包师的默认水源)、商业蒸馏水、商业过滤水,硬矿物质总溶解固体浓度为 475 ppm 的水,以及 pH 值为 8.9 的去离子水来和面,观察它们对发酵的影响。

分别用普通自来水(几乎所有面包师的默认水源)、商业蒸馏水、商业过滤水,硬矿物质总溶解固体浓度为 475 ppm 的水,以及 pH 值为 8.9 的去离子水来和面,观察它们对发酵的影响。

在电子扫描显微镜下观察酵母菌的生长过程。

在电子扫描显微镜下观察酵母菌的生长过程。

比较 Biga、Poolish 和 Sponge 等不同酵母种发酵的母面团在面包制作中的表现,实验结果认为它们没有本质上的不同,结果好坏只取决于使用量、时间长短和时机。

比较 Biga、Poolish 和 Sponge 等不同酵母种发酵的母面团在面包制作中的表现,实验结果认为它们没有本质上的不同,结果好坏只取决于使用量、时间长短和时机。

为了更好地在微观水平上进行观察,先把淀粉颗粒洗掉再拿到扫描电子显微镜下去拍摄,拍到了清晰的面筋网络及其形成过程。

为了更好地在微观水平上进行观察,先把淀粉颗粒洗掉再拿到扫描电子显微镜下去拍摄,拍到了清晰的面筋网络及其形成过程。

意式 Ciabatta 面包,这是一种典型的高含水面包,现代主义面包实验室更是做到了不可思议的 87% 含水量。

意式 Ciabatta 面包,这是一种典型的高含水面包,现代主义面包实验室更是做到了不可思议的 87% 含水量。

在面团表面进行浅切,这样可以促进面包的膨胀,也会使得它看起来更好吃。

在面团表面进行浅切,这样可以促进面包的膨胀,也会使得它看起来更好吃。

延时摄影拍下了一个法式面包的烘烤过程,法国总统马克龙在今年年初表示支持这种长棍面包进入联合国人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录。

延时摄影拍下了一个法式面包的烘烤过程,法国总统马克龙在今年年初表示支持这种长棍面包进入联合国人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录。

Byfeibisi

Barneys’ Vitale Talks Partnerships, Brick-and-Mortar and The Drop

Though Barneys has been aggressively building its online business, the luxury retailer is not about to neglect its brick-and-mortar operations.
“Over 60 percent of Millennials shop the physical store,” Daniella Vitale, chief executive officer of Barneys New York, said Tuesday at Fast Company’s “Innovation Festival” at the 92nd Street Y in Manhattan.
Vitale’s main message was that Barneys’ brick-and-mortar is innovating with immersive experiences such as The Drop, held last June at the Beverly Hills store and last fall at the Madison Avenue flagship in New York.
Vitale shared the Fast Company stage with Russell Wallach, president of Live Nation Media and Sponsorship. They addressed such subjects as wooing younger customers, partnerships and the need to offer engaging experiences, with Mark Wilson, a senior editor at Fast Company, moderating the discussion.
“The Drop will evolve into something else next year,” Vitale said, while avoiding to specify what’s in store. At the Beverly Hills store, it was a weekend of designer appearances, exclusive capsule collections, installations, panel discussions and a surprise performance by Wu-Tang Clan presented by Live Nation.
“It’s completely not true” that younger shoppers have been abandoning stores in favor of shopping online, Vitale stated, though she acknowledged more must be done to attract

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Byfeibisi

Chart of the Week: Government Debt Is Not the Whole Story: Look at the Assets

By IMFBlog

October 23, 2018

The Millennium Bridge in London, England: governments often don’t include the value of their assets, like bridges and roads, as well as natural resources, when they measure public wealth (Ingram Publishing/Newscom)

Lost track of your personal finances?  You are not alone.  Your government has often lost track of its finances too.  While it keeps close tabs on debt, it is less clear on how much it owns: the assets.

Things like roads, bridges, and sewer pipes are assets for a country, as well as the money governments have in the bank, their financial investments, and payments owed to them by individuals and businesses.

Natural resource reserves in the ground are also part of assets, something that is particularly important for natural resource-rich countries like Nigeria and Norway. But assets also include state-owned enterprises such as public banks and, in many countries, utilities such as public electricity and water companies.

Our Chart of the Week from the new Fiscal Monitor analyzes public wealth using 2016 data from 31 countries—from The Gambia, to the United States, as well as Japan, Turkey, Brazil, the United Kingdom and China, to name a few. Their assets amount to $101 trillion, or 219 percent of GDP.

Who owns what

Let’s look at the United Kingdom. The research shows how its balance sheet expanded massively during the global financial crisis, when the government decided to rescue several large private sector banks. This rescue substantially contributed to the increase in the UK’s public sector net debt, which is the total amount of debt minus the government’s cash in hand.

Fiscal Monitor includes them on the balance sheet and shows that a US recession would erode net worth—the value of assets minus liabilities— by some 26 percent of GDP under stress.

Your government has often lost track of its finances.

Japan is an interesting case, where gross public sector debt stood at some 283 percent of GDP at the end of 2017. However, other parts of the public sector hold over half of this debt. The private sector holds a smaller—but still sizeable—amount of public debt worth 134 percent of GDP.

Improve resilience

More generally, the research illustrates that public sector assets could act as a buffer that allows governments with high public wealth to weather recessions better than those with low public wealth. Stronger balance sheets—a statement of what you owe and own at a given point in time—allow governments to boost spending in a downturn.

Doable for all

All governments can better manage their resources. They should start by bringing data together to come up with a rough estimate of public sector assets, liabilities, and wealth. Over time, better accounting and statistical collections can improve the accuracy of these estimates. Governments can use them to do basic balance sheet risk and policy analysis, using the framework presented in this report.

Once governments complete this exercise they will be able to show their citizens the full extent of what they own and owe, and better use public wealth to meet society’s economic and social goals.

 

Related Links:
The Wealth of Nations: Governments Can Better Manage What They Own and Owe
Bringing Down High Debt

Byfeibisi

How to Use Photoshop Mockups: Five Simple Steps

Photoshop mockups are images that model your design in a realistic context. Whether you’re presenting your work to a client or iterating, mockups are a helpful tool to show how a design might appear (or be used) in the real world. In five simple steps, learn how to use mockup files like a pro.

1. Find, download, and open a mockup

 

To jumpstart your search, check out our list of some of the best free and paid mockup resources. Once you find the mockup of your dreams, download the file. Many mockup files arrive in folders containing other items (legal terms, author information, etc). Open the file ending with .psd.

For this example, I’ve downloaded this mug mockup from Graphic Burger.

photoshop mockups 1

2. Learn the layers

Great mockups include many layers, each labeled to describe its contents. Check to see what each layer does by toggling on/off its visibility by clicking on the eye icon to the left of the layer name. Toggle off the layers you don’t need.

Here, I’ve left the “Change mug color” layer toggled off, since I want the mug to stay white.

photoshop mockups 2

3. Open the Smart Object

Notice that some layers come with a fancy little document icon, and upon mouse hover, “Smart Object thumbnail” appears. These are Smart Objects, which let you make nondestructive transformations to the layer, bring in vector art, and have your changes update in files where that Smart Object is used.

To customize the mockup, you’ll be editing Smart Objects. Double click the Smart Object you want to edit, which will opens a separate window in Photoshop for the Smart Object contents.

photoshop mockups 3

4. Edit and save the Smart Object

Think of the window that opens for the Smart Object as a flattened view of the mockup surface. There, create the design you wish to model. Drag over images and add text if needed. Toggle the visibility off (or delete) any layers you don’t want to appear in the mockup. Then, save the file (just Save, not Save As). As soon as it is saved, the mockup will update to reflect the design in the Smart Object—head over to that Photoshop window to check it out.

Here’s the editing view of the Smart Object…

photoshop mockups 4

…and, as soon as I save this Smart Object, the mockup updates to reflect the design:

photoshop mockups 4b

5. Add finishing touches

In the mockup file, do anything else you need to make it yours! Customize the background color, add text, crop the canvas, move layers around (be sure to watch out for shadows and lighting effects)…the possibilities are infinite.

Here, I’ve changed the background color, added some hippos and text, and adjusted the mug scaling.

photoshop mockups 5

Then, export the mockup image in the file type you need, and, in case you want to modify your mockup again later, save your mockup as a .psd file. That’s all there is to it. Have fun mocking up your work!

Avoiding common mistakes

  • Saving Smart Objects. Check if your Smart Object is saved by looking for an asterisk next to the file name in the Photoshop window tab. If there is an asterisk, changes have been made that aren’t yet saved. Your mockup won’t reflect those changes until the Smart Object is re-saved.
  • Moving and transforming items. When moving items or scaling them in the mockup make sure all associated layers are transformed at the same time. To do so, select all other relevant layers at the same time by holding down Shift while clicking on them. Otherwise, object filters, shadows, and other effects will not match up.
  • Adding items. Reflect the scene in perspective and lighting when you add items to the mockup (Adobe Dimension is particularly good at helping with this). For instance, with the example above, I made the hippos’ shadows run left, since the mug shadow runs left, and the lighting on the hippos’ backs comes from the top and right.
  • Save your mockup file in a project folder. Keep in mind that any saves you make to your freshly downloaded mockup merely overwrite the downloaded file, which lives in the folder you keep your downloaded files (for most Mac users, that might be the Downloads folder). If you want to keep your mockup handy in a different folder, use “Save As” and select the folder where you want it to live. It’s a good idea to start any mockup project by doing this so you don’t realize later that you emptied your Downloads folder along with that mockup you worked so hard to build.

The post How to Use Photoshop Mockups: Five Simple Steps appeared first on HOW Design.

Byfeibisi

The Dodgers Have Little History at Fenway. Manny Machado Has Plenty.

Fresh off a controversial turn in the N.L.C.S., Machado returns to a park where he has frequently hit the ball well while angering plenty of Boston players.

Byfeibisi

Inbox: Is there an impact bat in the system?

Opening the Tigers inbox as we wait for the World Series and the Hot Stove season that follows.